Period of the Crusaders


The crusaders displayed against the defeated Muslims extremely opposite behavior to the one displayed by Omar Hattab to the defeated Romeans (Byzantine Greeks) of Jerusalem and carried out a horrible slaughter. However, even the Orthodox Church suffered similar martyric hardships by the frankolatin presence. The Patriarchs of Jerusalem were sent into exile for 88 years to Constantinople, while their seat in Jerusalem was occupied by permission of the crusaders, by the abbot of the Lavra of Saint Savva. The imposition of the Latin Church on the Orthodox clergy was oppressive and the All Holy Shrines were transferred to the Latin, whose clergy was brought over from the West, while the Brotherhood of the Sepulchre kept the right to use the Church of the Discovery of the Holy Cross and to perform services in Greek at the All Holy Tomb and at Bethlehem. They also kept many Monasteries outside Jerusalem while within the Holy City they kept the metohion of the Lavra of Saint Savva, that was by the gate of David and which was their centre, and the Monastery of the Great Theotokos. The crusaders wishing to become partners with the Armenians and the Jacobites, turned over to them Churches and Monasteries. A significant event of this period was the restoration of many Orthodox Shrines by the Romean (Greek) Emperor Manuel Komnenos (1143-1180), while the crusaders having restored the All Holy Church of the Resurrection to its almost original form of before 614, they rejoined the four Churches under Saint Modesto, (Resurrection, Golgotha, Descent from the Cross and Discovery of the Cross), giving to the complex of the Church of Resurrection the unified form which is maintained to the present.